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Geneva Protocol 1925:
The first treaty to prohibit the use of biological weapons. The 1925 Geneva Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use In War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases and Bacteriological Methods of Warfare.


Former Soviet republic just south of Chechnya. Allegedly, military advisers my be sent into Georgia to train Georgian troops to find Chechen rebels who have ties to Al Qaeda. There are those in both the U.S. and Georgian governments who believe that some of bin Laden's leaders have taken refuge in the Pankisi Gorge after escaping from Afghanistan.


germ warfare:
The use of biological agents to cause harm to targeted people either directly, by bringing the people into contact with the agents or indirectly, by infecting other animals and plants, which would in turn cause harm to the people.


In November, 2001, Germany volunteered 3,900 troops to the war in Afghanistan. All troops were in non-combative roles.In September, 2002, the German Justice Minister compared President G.W. Bush to Adolf Hitler during the run-up to the Iraq war. In January, 2003, Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder refused to back a U.N. resolution regarding the war in Iraq.

Armed Islamic Group based in Algeria.

Moroccan Islamic Combatant Group based in Western Europe.

An infectious bacterial disease known to cause inflammation in horses, donkeys, mules, goats, dogs and cats. Human infection has not been seen since 1945, but because so few organisms are required to cause disease, it is considered a potential agent for biological warfare.


Great Britain:
The United States' closest ally, sent troops to Afghanistan and to Iraq.British anti-terrorist officers found ricin, one of the most deadly poisons, leading to the arrest of 13 suspected terrorists. Later that same month, they arrested 7 men in a mosque in connection with the same group.


Ground Zero:
From 1946 until September 11, 2001, ground zero was the point directly above, below, or at which a nuclear explosion occurs or the center or origin of rapid, intense, or violent activity or change. After September 11, 2001, the term, when used with initial capital letters, refers to the ground at the epicenter of the World Trade Center attacks. 


guerrilla warfare:
The term was invented in to describe the tactics Spain used to resist Napoleon, though the tactic itself has been around much, much longer. Literally, it means "little war." Guerrilla warfare features cells and utilizes no front line. The oldest form of asymmetric warfare, guerrilla warfare is based on sabotage and ambush with the objective of destabilizing the government through lengthy and low-intensity confrontation.

© Michelle Anderson 2001-2016